English Journal: Week 8 (Rhetorical Devices)

Because of the Eid al-Adha holiday on Monday and Tuesday, we only had 1 session of English class this week. So, happy Eid al-Adha for those of you who celebrate!

Before we started to learn, we did a quick review of the Cambridge A and AS Level paper test and two types of writing, they are:

  1. Argumentative writing: when you agree or disagree a text.
  2. Discursive writing: when you talk about both positive and negative side of a text.

As you can see from the title above, we have learned about rhetorical devices. Actually, our English teacher realized that we have studied some of the points of rhetorical devices back in year 10. But the main reason why we restudied rhetorical devices was to help us continue our typical writing draft because rhetorical devices help the writer to influence the audience and also to keep the audience interested in reading a piece of writing.

But what is exactly a rhetorical device is? It is how writer use language to influence the readers. There are 9 rhetorical devices; rhetorical questions, list of three, over exaggeration, repetition, formal/informal, facts and statistics, personal involvement, expert opinion/quotation, and audience involvement.

The most used rhetorical devices in English are:

  • Rhetorical questions

The writer will not expect you to answer this question – they suggest the answer for you.

Example: Don’t you want to be a successful business owner?

  • List of three

Three nouns, adjectives, or verbs will be used in a list within a sentence.

Example: Starting a new business is fun, challenging, yet competitive.

  • Repetition

The technique of repeating the same word and phrase

Example: In order to achieve your goals, you have to work, work, work.

After we increase our knowledge about rhetorical devices, we continued our typical writing draft. But this time, it’s a different draft, we have to create a second draft which is arranged by ‘typical’ structure.

Here is my second draft:

*Order *Focus/Content

Paragraph 1 (introduction) – Introduce topic/issue: mention the shop I run

Rhetorical question: Don’t you want to be a successful business owner?

Paragraph 2 – More details: why I ended up with my own shop

List of 3:

  1. Reasons of why I quit my job
  2. Advantages of starting your own business

Paragraph 3 – Challenges 1-2: Lack of experience, time to set up

Audience involvement: We know starting a business is ……

Paragraph 4 – Challenges 3-4: costs, advertising, problems with stock

Facts and statistics:

  1. Statistics of top businesses in the world and Indonesia
  2. The effects of the data above to my business

Paragraph 5 – Challenges 5-6: competition, very tiring

  1. Statistics or facts of successful cupcake business (ex: Georgetown Cupcake)
  2. What we should do in order to keep up with the competition

Paragraph 6 – Rewards 1-2: Being my own boss, happy customers

  1. Expert opinion/quotation from successful business owner (1)
  2. Rewards of being an entrepreneur in general

Paragraph 7 – Rewards 3-4: Business to hand over, etc.

  1. List of 3: Rewards to the customers, employees, and partnership
  2. Audience involvement

Paragraph 8 – Rewards 5 – 6: 

  1. Risk and rewards of being an entrepreneur especially in a cupcake business

Concluding Paragraph – Overview: Has it been worth it?

  1. Repetition, facts, and statistics, list of 3: Business analysis and advice
  2. Expert opinion/quotation from successful business owner (2)
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